4. Determination of fair values

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A number of the Group’s accounting policies and disclosures require the determination of fair value, for both financial and nonfinancial assets and liabilities. Fair values have been determined for measurement and / or disclosure purposes based on the methods described in 4(a) to 4(d). When applicable, further information about the assumptions made in determining fair values is disclosed in the notes specific to that asset or liability.

(a) Investments in equity and debt securities

The fair value of held-to-maturity investments and available-for-sale financial assets is determined by reference to their quoted bid price at the reporting date. The fair value of held-to-maturity investments is determined for disclosure purposes only.

For non-quoted investments the fair value, if reliably measurable, is determined using valuation models.

(b) Derivative financial instruments

The fair value is assessed using discounted cash flow technique, where possible using observable inputs, which corresponds to level 2 of the hierarchy of the fair value measurements.

(c) Trade and ot her receivables

The fair value of trade and other receivables is estimated as the present value of future cash flows, discounted at the market rate of interest at the reporting date.

(d) Non-derivative financial liabilities

Fair value, which is determined for disclosure purposes, is calculated based on the present value of future principal and interest cash flows, discounted at the market rate of interest at the reporting date. For finance leases the market rate of interest is determined by reference to similar lease agreements.